Conduction, Convection and Radiation

The three types of heat transfer


Heat is transfered via solid material (conduction), liquids and gases (convection), and electromagnetical waves (radiation). Heat is usually transfered in a combination of these three types and seldomly occurs on its own. For example, the thermal environment of a building is influenced by heat fluxes through the ground (conduction), and the building envelope (mostly convection and radiation).


Convection is heat flux through liquids and gases. gSKIN® Heat Flux Sensors can measure convective heat flux (see picture on the left). Examples of convective heat flux are:

  • Feeling much colder when it is windy.

  • Feeling much colder in water of 25°C than in air of 25°C.

  • Sensing principle in heat flux based mass flow sensors. Learn more

Conduction is heat flux through solid materials. gSKIN® Heat Flux Sensors can measure conductive heat flux (see picture on the left). Examples of conductive heat flux are:

  • Touching a hot cup of coffee

  • Thermal influences in precision instruments. Learn more

  • Measurement of heat output from chemical reactors. Learn more

Radiation Radiation is heat flux through electromagnetic waves. gSKIN® Heat Flux Sensors can measure radiative heat flux (see picture on the left). Examples of radiative heat flux are:

  • Feeling hot when standing close to fire.

  • Measurement of solar power. Learn more