Calorimetric Measurement of Batteries

Why are heat flux sensors important?


Batteries produce heat during the charging and discharging phases. Knowing the amount of this heat is of great importance for battery safety, research, and control. That is why calorimetric measurements on batteries are common. However, standard battery calorimeters are expensive and the experiments are time consuming. With greenTEG’s Heat Flux Sensors, calorimetric measurements become affordable and feasible for any system and application.

Advantages of gSKIN® Heat Flux Sensors:


  • Small heat flux sensors with high sensitivity, easily integrated into application setups
  • Measure heat into and out of the battery
  • Determine the charging and discharging signal of the battery
  • Enhanced monitoring in order to increase the lifetime and charging speed
  • Determining the State of Health
  • Ability to determine thermal capacity allowing for a faster determination of inner temperature during use


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Recent application example:

During charging and discharging Li-ions are intercalated or removed from the electrode. When no more space is available, the Li-ions undergo a phase transition, in order to intercalate more ions. The same phase transitions also occur during discharging of the electrode. These transitions are accompanied by thermal energy release or uptake, which can be detected with greenTEG’s Heat Flux Sensors. Any change in the electrode or electrolyte quality can be detected accordingly. Hence, entropy profiling is a powerful tool for:

  • Battery quality determination (End of Line testing)
  • State of Health determination
  • Life time and aging investigation (Second Life)
  • Electrode and electrolyte research

greenteg sensor battery charging and discharging cycle

Calorimetric footprint of a Li-ion pouch cell recorded during battery cycling at isothermal conditions.


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Integration of a greenTEG Heat Flux Sensor into a measurement setup.

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„At our Battery Calorimetry Lab the gSKIN® Heat Flux Sensor facilitates the determination of the heat transfer coefficient for Lithium-ion batteries that is necessary to transfer the measured temperature data into heat data. These data help to improve the thermal management system for the batteries, making them much safer.“

Dr. Carlos Ziebert, Head of the Battery Calorimeter Lab at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials–Applied Materials Physics

With Heat Flux Sensors from greenTEG, we are able to measure the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries under load. The data acquired from the heat flux sensors during thermal characterization tests helps us to parametrize and validate thermal battery models, which are used for the design of battery modules and their cooling systems.”

Mr. Klee Barillas, Li-Ion battery researcher from the ZSW in Germany

“Our group at AIT works on the thermal design and the electro-thermal simulation of battery modules and systems. gSKIN® Heat Flux Sensors help us to determine parameters and to evaluate both the models and the design without requiring a large calorimeter.  The voltage response of the sensors is in the range of those of thermocouples, therefore allowing for an easy integration in our test benches.”

Mr. Hartmut Popp, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Mobility Department

gSKIN® Heat Flux Sensors for Research and Development

We offer an array of different products for R&D.These include heat flux sensors in different sizes and data loggers for fast and reliable data acquisition.

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gSKIN® Heat Flux Sensors for OEM Applications

We offer heat flux sensors suitable for OEM applications. Please contact us directly to consult you and discuss your application.

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